Africa in Struggle: Table of Contents

1. European Colonial Invasion and Early Anti-Colonial Resistance Hierarchical clan system vs. village community; Slave/ivory trade; Why Europe?; From mercantile to colonial imperialism; African resistance; Separation of producers from the means of production; the Congo free state; World war 1.

2. Class Structure of Africa under the Reign of Imperialism Imperialism distorts Africa's productive forces; 'European' vs. traditional economic sector; Bourgeoisie; Modern middle classes; Traditional petty bourgeoisie; Proletariat; National bourgeoisie, bureaucratic bourgeoisie.

3. World War 2 and the Stalinist Betrayal 'People's front against fascism'; 'Free' France colonially enslaves Algeria; Capitalist boom, redoubled exploitation of African workers.

4. Algeria: The Bourgeoisie Seizes the Revolution Communist Party does the work of French colonialism; Liberation war begins; FLN's contradictory aspects; Cleavage between FLN's internal and external organization; Bloodletting between contending nationalist groups; French Communists remain in the camp of French imperialism; Battle of Algiers; FLN vs. MNA struggle climaxes; De Gaulle returns to power; FLN did not wage a people's war; The colonial state was not smashed; Kabylia; Reactionary war between Algeria and Morocco; Déjà vu; Workers' self-management and agrarian policy; Industrial policy; Ben Bella brings the labor unions to heel; French domination continues; Ben Bella vacillates...and Colonial Boumedienne acts; Boumedienne's agrarian reform; The woman question; Kabylia revisited.

5. Kenya: From Land & Freedom Army Insurgency to Kenyatta's 'Good Government' Missionaries preach the gospel of the commodity; Colonial overturn of pre-class tribal society; Rise of the nationalist movement; 'Mau Mau' oathings; Rumblings of insurrection, state of emergency; Land & Freedom Army forms; Colonial counterinsurgency targets Gikuyu peasants; War's stalemate and 'operation anvil'; LFA's fatal weaknesses; The tribal question; Psychological warfare; Labor movement disconnected from anti-colonial revolt; British colonialism wins; Kenyatta gets the nod; Suppression of Somali insurgents in the northeast; Settler farmer bourgeoisie retrenches.

6. Imposition of Neocolonialism U.S. imperialism poses before Africa as a liberator; The old empires recede; Balkanization; Imperialism breeds underdevelopment; The neocolonial 'national' bourgeoisie; Mass famine; Which class shall rule?

7. The Congo: Dismembered, Then Slammed Together by Imperialism The tribal problem; Breakneck decolonization; Mutiny in the Force Publique; Lumumba vacillates, Belgium invades; Tshombe moves; UN force fronts for western imperialism; Kasavubu-Mobutu-Tshombe coup destroys Lumumba; UN force shifts gears to state centralism; Military-bureaucratic bourgeoisie has a feast; Revolution of 1964; White terror; Mobutu's second coup; Katanga/Shaba insurrection of 1977; Katanga/Shaba revisited.

8. Nigerian Civil War 1967-70: Inter-Imperialist Proxy War Social basis of tribal contradictions; The first coup; Ibo junior officers nudge general Ironsi into power; Second coup: northern officers take over, anti-Ibo pogroms rage in the north; Racist 'revenge' in the east; Tribalist jockeying over structure of state; Biafra secedes, Lagos attacks; Two contending military cliques; An inter-imperialist war; Oil politics of the war; The national and tribal question; What could have been done?; Internationalization; 'Nigeria' wins, the Nigerian peoples lose.

9. African Bonapartism Left bonapartism and right bonapartism; Egypt; Libya; Guinea-Conakry; Liberia; Ghana; The checkered legacy of Nkrumah; Congo-Brazzaville; Zambia; Tanzania; Uganda; Somalia; Ethiopia; Sudan.

10. China, Cuba, Angola and the Permanent Revolution The concept of Marx and Engels; Russia and the theory of permanent revolution; Chinese revolution and counterrevolution of 1925-7; Revival of the Chinese revolution and rise of the 'workers state on wheels'; Cuban revolution; Which class leads the national liberation movement?; Africa; It began in Cameroun; The Portuguese colonies.

11. Angola, Mozambique: The Dawn of Workers' Power in Africa Revolts of 1960-61; 'Militarist' adventurism or people's war; Neocolonial fronts rise to challenge MPLA; MPLA begins protracted people's war; Caetano builds up his own grave-diggers; Class struggle within Frelimo; Portuguese colonialism's death agony; Portuguese workers' rise; Angolan masses organize, arm themselves under whip of counterrevolution; MPLA enters coalition government; Luanda insurrection; Class war in the countryside; South Africa, Zaire invade; Soviet-Cuban aid to MPLA accelerates, FAPLA counteroffensive begins; Internal contradictions primary; Permanent revolution vindicated; Frelimo's triumph; Agrarian policy; Industrial policy; Workers' and peasants' democracy in Mozambique; Contradictions of people's power in Angola; The Alves putsch; Bureaucratic consolidation; Struggle against bureaucracy in Mozambique.

12. Revolution in Guinea-Bissau and the Heritage of Amilcar Cabral 'Horizontal' and 'vertical' social formations of Guinea-Bissau; Cabral: his social origins, his theoretical insights; Early pitfalls and strengths of the PAIGC; Cabral leads rectification conference; Cabral's revolutionary democratic practice; Cabral is assassinated; Guinea-Bissau is liberated; Agrarian policy; Bureaucratic deformation; Unprincipled coup.

13. Ethiopia: From Democratic Revolution to Military Reaction Birth of the modern Eritrean liberation movement; Capitalist transformation of agriculture in southern Ethiopia; Pre-capitalist land relations in the north; Somali revolt in the Ogaden; Eritrean struggle sharpens; Modern class formation in urban Ethiopia; Famine of 1973; Ethiopian revolution begins; The military takes over; 1975: radical land reform, nationalization of industry and urban land, suppression of labor movement; Dergue's white terror in Asmara; U.S. imperialism supports 'revolutionary' Dergue; 1976: Thermidor in the countryside, reactionary mobilization of lumpenproletariat, renewal of war against Eritrea; 1977: white terror; Mengistu's 'left' foreign policy turn; Eritrean revolution; Women's liberation in Eritrea; Eritrea's liberation is within sight...but the Dergue gets a massive Soviet bail-out; A no-win war for the Dergue; Demise of ELF, resurgence of EPLF; Tigre; Djibouti; Somalia and the Ogaden; Oromia.

14. Zimbabwe: The Revolution Aborted Africa proletariat raises its head; Bourgeois nationalism's dead end; Setters' 'unilateral' declaration of independence; Nationalist movement at an impasse; ZANU radicalizes, launches liberation war; Vorster-Smith-Kaunda 'detente' aims to liquidate ZANU's armed struggle; Reactionary rebellion within ZANU; Chitepo assassinated, ZANU's rear base in Zambia destroyed; The struggle intensifies in the east; Sithole's complaint; Patriotic Front formed; Smith's 'internal settlement'; Mugabe's negotiated betrayal; Mugabe suppresses ZANU's revolutionary command staff; Elections; The world is not stood on its head; Antagonistic class armies; The Tekere affair; Agrarian policy; Coup machinations?; Mugabe and Nkomo suppress their own guerrillas.

15. The UN and OAU in the Face of the Liberation Struggles From League of Nations to United Nations; Horn of Africa; Who lurks behind the World Bank and IMF?; How the UN works to corrode national liberation movements; Namibia; The OAU; Western Sahara; Receding mirage.

16. Role of the Soviet Union and China

17. Three Concepts of Pan-African Nationalism Reactionary utopian concept; Reformist-radical concept; Revolutionary marxist concept.

18. South Africa: Economic Powerhouse of Africa, Key to African LiberationAnglo-Boer war; Bambatha's rebellion; Renewed expropriation of African peasants; Black proletarianization, white proletarianization; Boer worker/landlord coalition surges to power, extends color bar; World war 2 brings 'liberal' Smuts back to power...but postwar racist rule requires Nationalists' return; Apartheid; African women take to struggle; Sharpeville massacre; Resurgence of African workers' movement; Soweto rebellion and the judgment of Solomon; Bantustan 'independence'; Imperialism needs apartheid; Crisis of African political leadership; Matriarchy and women's liberation.

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